Cardiorenal Syndrome: Diagnosis and Treatment

O.O. Melnyk

Abstract


In the diagnosis of cardiorenal syndrome (CRS), the biological markers are widely used, they can be applied to identify the pathophysiological stages of CRS, to assess the amount of risk, prognosis and outcome, as well as to monitor the effectiveness of treatment. CRS therapy includes diuretics, vasodilators, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor antagonists, nitrates and cardiac glycosides. One of the most effective methods of CRS treatment is the use of renal replacement therapy.


Keywords


cardiorenal syndrome; biomarkers of cardiorenal syndrome (cardiospecific, cardiorenal, glomerular, proximal, distal); treatment of cardiorenal syndrome (diuretics, vasodilators, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor anta­gonist

References


Ronco C, Haapio M, House AA, Anavekar N, Bellomo R. Саrdiorenal syndrome. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008 Nov 4;52(19):1527-39. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2008.07.051

Ronco C. Cardiorenal and renocardial syndromes: clinical discordersinsearch of a systematic definition. Int. J. Artif. Organs. 2008;31(1):1-2. PMID: 18286448

Latchamsetty R, Fang J, Kline-Rogers E, Mukherjee D, Otten RF, LaBounty TM, Emery MS, Eagle KA, Froehlich JB. Prognostic Value of Treatment and Sustained Increase in In-Hospital Creatinine on Outcomes of Patients Admited With Acute Coronary Syndrome. Am J Cardiol. 2007 Apr 1;99(7):939-42. doi: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2006.10.058

Cowie MR, Komajda M, Murray-Thomas T, Underwood J, Ticho B;Prevadence and impact of worsening renal function in patients hospitalized with decompensated heart failure: results of the prospective outcomes study in heart failure (POSH). Eur Heart J. 2006 May;27(10):1216-22. PMID: 16624834 DOI: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehi859

Smith GL, Vaccarino V, Kosiborod M, Lichtman JH, Cheng S, Watnick SG, Krumholz HM. Worsening renal function: What is a clinicaly meaningful change in creatinine during hospitalization with heart failure? J Card Fail. 2003 Feb;9(1):13-25. PMID: 12612868 DOI: 10.1054/jcaf.2003.3

Ronco C, Bellomo R, McCullough PA Cardiorenal Syndrome in Critical Care. Contr. Nephrol. 2010; Based Karger, 2010; 165.

Ahmed A, Rich MW, Sanders PW, Perry GJ, Bakris GL, Zile MR, Love TE, Aban IB, Shlipak MG. Chronical Kidney Disease Associated Mortality in Diagnostic Versus Systolic Heart Failure: A Propensity Matched Study. Am J Cardiol. 2007 Feb 1;99(3):393-8. doi: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2006.08.042

Campbell RC, Sui X, Filippatos G, Love TE, Wahle C, Sanders PW, Ahmed A. Association of chronic kidney disease with outcome in chronic heart failure: a propensity-matched study. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2009 Jan;24(1):186-93. doi: 10.1093/ndt/gfn445.

Roghi A, Savonitto S, Cavallini C et al. Impact of acute renal failure following percutaneous coronary intervention on long-term mortality. J. Cardiovasc. Med. 2008;9:375-381. doi: 10.2459/JCM.0b013e3282eee979

Coresh IJ, Stevens LA, Levey AS. Chronic kidney disease is common: What do we do next? Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. 2008;23(4):1122-1125. doi: 10.1093/ndt/gfn117.

McClellan WM. The epidemic of renal disease — what drives it and what can be done? Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. 2006;21(6): 1461-1464. doi:10.1093/ndt/gfi317

Bagshaw SM, Lapinsky S, Dial S et al. Acute kidney injure in septic shock: clinical outcome and impact of duration of hypotension prior to initiation of antimicrobial therapy. Intensive Care Med. 2009 May;35(5):871-81. doi: 10.1007/s00134-008-1367-2

Ammann P, Maggiorini M, Bertel O et al. Troponin as a risk factor for mortality in critically ill patients without acute coronary syndromes. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 2003 Jun 4;41(11):2004-9. PMID: 12798573

Wallace KB, Hausner E, Herman E, Holt GD, MacGregor JT et al. Serum troponins as biomarkers of drug-induced cardiac toxicity. Toxicol. Pathol. 2004 Jan-Feb;32(1):106-21. DOI: 10.1080/01926230490261302

Palazzuoli A, McCullough PA, Ronco C, Nuti R. Kidney disease in heart failure: the importance of novel biomarkers for type 1 cardiorenal syndrome detection. Intern. Emerg. Med. 2015;10:543-554.

Pruett AE, Lee AK, Patterson JH, Schwartz TA, Glotzer JM et al. Evolution of biomarker guided therapy for heart failure: current concepts and trial evidence. Curr. Cardiol. Rev. 2015;11:80-89.

McCullough PA, Jefferies JL. Novel markers and therapies for patients with acute heart failure and renal dysfunction. Am. J. Med. 2015;128:312.

Pruett AE, Lee AK, Patterson JH, Schwartz TA, Glotzer JM et al. Evolution of biomarker guided therapy for heart failure: current concepts andtrial evidence. Curr. Cardiol. Rev. 2015;11:80-89.

de Boer RA, Lok DJ, Jaarsma T, van der Meer P, Voors AA et al. Predictive value of plasma galectin-3 levels in heart failure with reduced andpreserved ejection fraction. Ann. Med. 2011;43:60-68.

van Kimmenade RR, Januzzi JL, Ellinor PT, Sharma UC, Bakker JA et al. Utility of amino-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, galectin-3, andapelin for the evaluation of patients with acute heart failure. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 2006;48:1217-1224.

McCullough PA, Nowak RM, McCord J, Hollander JE, Herrmann HC et al. B-type natriuretic peptide and clinical judgment in emergency diagnosis of heart failure: analysis from Breathing Not Properly (BNP) Multinational Study. Circulation. 2002;106:416-422.

Bucholz EM, Whitlock RP, Zappitelli M, Devarajan P, Eikelboom J et al. Cardiac biomarkers and acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery. Pediatrics. 2015;135:945-956.

Vianello A, Caponi L, Galetta F, Franzoni F, Taddei M et al. β2-Microglobulin and TIMP1 Are Linked Together in Cardiorenal Remodeling and Failure. Cardiorenal. Med. 2015;5:1-11.

Zakeri R, Sangaralingham SJ, Sandberg SM, Heublein DM, Scott CG et al. Urinary C-type natriuretic peptide: a new heart failure biomarker. JACC Heart Fail. 2013;1:170-177.

Zakeri R, Burnett JC Jr, Sangaralingham SJ. Urinary C-type natriuretic peptide: an emerging biomarker for heart failure and renal remodeling. Clin. Chim. Acta. 2015;443:108-113.

Shin SJ, Wen JD, Lee YJ, Chen IH, Tsai JH. Increased C-type natriuretic peptide mRNA expression in the kidney of diabetic rats. J. Endocrinol. 1998;158:35-42.

Fuchs TC, Hewitt P. Preclinical perspective of urinary biomarkers for the detection of nephrotoxicity: what we know and what we need to know. Biomark. Med. 2011;5:763-779.

Vaidya VS, FergusonMA, Bonventre JV. Biomarkers of acute kidney injury. Ann. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 2008;48:463-493.

Bouquegneau A, Krzesinski JM, Delanaye P, Cavalier E. Biomarkers and physiopathology in the cardiorenal syndrome. Clin. Chim. Acta. 2015;443:100-107.

Vaidya VS, Waikar SS, Ferguson MA, Collings FB, Sunderland K et al. Urinary biomarkers for sensitive and specific detection of acute kidney injury in humans. Clin. Transl. Sci. 2008;1:200-208.

Adiyanti SS, Loho T. Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) biomarker. Acta Med. Indones. 2012;44:246-255.

Westhuyzen J, Endre ZH, Reece G, Reith DM, Saltissi D et al. Measurement of tubular enzymuria facilitates early detection of acute renal impairment in the intensive care unit. Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. 2003;18:543-551.

Bonomini F, Foglio E, Rodella LF, Rezzani R. Clinical biomarkers in kidney diseases. Front. Biosci. (Schol. Ed.). 2010;2:591-615.

Takashi M, Zhu Y, Miyake K, Kato K. Urinary 28-kD calbindin-D as a new marker for damage to distal renal tubules caused by cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Urol. Int. 1996;56:174-179.

Kashani K, Al-Khafaji A, Ardiles T, Artigas A, Bagshaw SM et al. Discovery and validation of cell-cycle arrest biomarkers in human acute kidney injury. Crit Care. 2013 Feb 6;17(1):R25. doi: 10.1186/cc12503

Bihorac A, Chawla LS, Shaw AD, Al-Khafaji A, Davison DL et al. Validation of cell-cycle arrest biomarkers for acute kidney injury using clinical adjudication. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care. Med. 2014;189:932-939.

Gocze I, Koch M, Renner P, Zeman F, Graf BM, et al. Urinary biomarkers TIMP-2 and IGFBP7 early predict acute kidney injury after major surgery. PLoS One. 2015 Mar 23;10(3):e0120863. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0120863. eCollection 2015.

Meersch M, Schmidt C, Van Aken H, Martens S, Rossaint J et al. Urinary TIMP-2 and IGFBP7 as early biomarkers of acute kidney injury and renal recovery following cardiac surgery. PLoS One. 2014 Mar 27;9(3):e93460. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0093460. eCollection 2014.

Virzi GM, Clementi A, de Cal M, Brocca A, Day S et al. Оxidative stress: dual pathway induction in cardiarenal syndrome type 1 pathogenesis. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity. 2015;2015:ID 391790. doi: 10.1155/2015/391790.

Yang L, Brooks CR, Xiao S, Sabbisetti V, Yeung MY et al. KIM-1-mediated phagocytosis reduces acute injury to the kidney. J. Clin. Invest. 2015;125:1620-1636.

Zhou H, Cheruvanky A, Hu X, Matsumoto T, Hiramatsu N et al. Urinary exosomal transcription factors, a new class of biomarkers for renal disease. Kidney Int. 2008; 74: 613-621.

Sharma A, Mucino MJ, Ronco C. Renal functional reserve and renal recovery after acute kidney injury. Nephron Clin Pract. 2014;127(1-4):94-100. doi: 10.1159/000363721.

D’Marco L, Bellasi A, Raggi P. Сardiovascular biomarkers in chronic kidney disases: stage on current research and clinical applicability. Disease Markers. 2015;2015:ID 586569. doi:10.1155/2015/586569.

Stacy SR, Suarez-Cuervo C, Berger Z, Wilson LM, Yeh H-C et al. Role of troponin in patients with chronic kidney disease and suspected acute coronary syndrome. Ann. Inter. Med. 2014;161:502-512.

Bansal N, Anderson AH, Yang W, Christenson RH, deFilipp CR et al. High-sensitivity troponin T and N-terminal Pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NTproBNP) and risk of incident heart failure in patients with CKD: the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) study. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 2014;26:946-956.

Pruett AE, Lee AK, Patterson JH, Schwartz TA, Glotzer JM et al. Evolution of biomarker guided therapy for heart failure: current concepts and trial evidence. Curr. Cardiol. Rev. 2015;11:80-89.

Lok DJ, Van Der Meer P, de la Porte PW, Lipsic E, Van Wijngaarden J, et al. Prognostic value of galectin-3, a novel marker of fibrosis, in patients with chronic heart failure: data from the DEAL-HF study. Clin. Res. Cardiol. 2010;99:323-328.

Zhu ZD, Sun T. Association between growth differentiation factor-15 and chronic heart failure in coronary atherosclerosis patients. Genet. Mol. Res. 2015;14:2225-33.

Piper SE, Sherwood RA, Amin-Youssef GF, Shah AM, McDonagh TA. Serial soluble ST2 for the monitoring of pharmacologically optimised chronic stable heart failure. Int. J. Cardiol. 2015;178:284-91.

Bayes-Genis A, Zhang Y, Ky B. ST2 and patient prognosis in chronic heart failure. Am. J. Cardiol. 2015;115:64B-9B. doi: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2015.01.043.

Bayes-Genis A, Richards AM, Maisel AS, Mueller C, Ky B. Multimarker testing with ST2 in chronic heart failure. Am. J. Cardiol. 2015;115:76B-80B.

Januzzi JL, Pascual-Figal D, Daniels LB. ST2 testing for chronic heart failure therapy monitoring: the International ST2 Consensus Panel. Am. J. Cardiol. 2015;115:70B-5B.

Zhu ZD, Sun T. Association between growth differentiation factor-15 and chronic heart failure in coronary atherosclerosis patients. Genet. Mol. Res. 2015;14:2225-2233.

Takada T, Kodera Y, Matsubara M, Kawashima Y, Maeda T et al. Serum monomeric α2-macroglobulin as a clinical biomarker in diabetes. Atherosclerosis. 2013; 228: 270-276.

Annapoorani P, Dhandapany PS, Sadayappan S, Ramasamy S, Rathinavel A et al. Cardiac isoform of alpha-2 macroglobulin — a new biomarker for myocardial infarcted diabetic patients. Atherosclerosis. 2006;186:173-6.

Mullens W, Abrahams Z, Francis GS, Sokos G, Taylor DO, Starling RC et al. Importance of venous congestion for worsening of renal function in advanced decompensated heart failure. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 2009, Feb 17;53(7):589-96.

House AA, Haapio М, Lassus J, Bellomo R, Ronco C. Pharmacological management of cardiorenal syndromes. Int. J. Nephrol. 2011; 2011: 630809. Published online 2011 May 26. doi: 10.4061/2011/630809. PMCID: PMC3108139.

Salvador DR, Rey NR, Ramos GC, Punzalan FE. Continuous infusion versus bolus injection of loop diuretics in congestive heart failure. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 2005 Jul 20;3:CD003178.

Heywood JT. The cardiorenal syndrome: lessons from the ADHERE database and treatment options. Heart Fail. Rev. 2004 Jul; 9(3):195-201.

Cruz DN. Cardiorenal syndrome in critical care: the acute cardiorenal and renocardiac syndromes. Adv. Chronic. Kidney Dis. 2013 Jan; 20(1):56-66.

Koniari K, Nikolaou M, Paraskevaidis I, Parissis J. Therapeuticoptions for the management of the cardiorenal syndrome. Int. J. Nephrol. 2010, Dec 15; 2011:194910.

Reichert S, Ignaszewski A. Molecular and physiological effects of nesiritide. Can. J. Cardiol. 2008 Jul;24(Suppl. B):15B-8B.

Givertz M, Massie BM, Fields TK, Pearson LL, Dittrich HC. The effects of KW-3902, an adenosine A1-receptor antagonist, on diuresis and renal function in patients with acute decompensated heart failure and renal impairment or diuretic resistance. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 2007, Oct 16; 50(16):1551-60.

Daveport A, Anker SD, Mebazaa A et al. ADQI 7: the clinical management of cardiorenal syndromes: workgroup statements from the 7th ADQI consensus conference. Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. 2010;25:2077-89.

McCullough PA, Haapio M, Mankad S et al. Prevention of cardio-renal syndromes: workgroup statements from the 7th ADQI Consensus Conference. Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. 2010;25:1777-84.

Kazory A, Ross EA. Anemia: the point of convergence or divergence for kidney disease and heart failure. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 2009;53:639-47.

Bagshaw SM, Cruz DN. Fluid overload as a biomarker of heart failure and acute kidney injury. Contrib. Nephrol. 2010;164:54-68.

Schiffrin EL, Lipman ML, Mann JFE. Chronic kidney disease. Effects on the cardiovascular system. Circulation. 2007;116:85-97.

Bagshaw SM, Cruz DN, Aspromonte N et al. Epidemiology of cardiorenal syndromes: workgroup statements from the 7th ADQI Consensus Conference. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2010 May;25(5):1406-16. doi: 10.1093/ndt/gfq066.

Oppert M, Engel C, Brunkhorst FM et al. Acute renal failure in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock — a significant independent risk factor for mortality: results from the German Prevalence Study. Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. 2008;23:904-909.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.22141/2307-1257.6.1.2017.93777

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2017 KIDNEYS

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

 

© "Publishing House "Zaslavsky", 1997-2017

 

 Яндекс.МетрикаSeo анализ сайта Рейтинг@Mail.ru